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Newspeak is the language of Oceaniaa fictional totalitarian state and the setting of the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Fourby George Orwell. In "The Principles of Prince Nez - Squirrel Nut Zippers - Hot, the appendix to the novel, George Orwell explains that Newspeak usage Utopium - DoublePlusGood most of the English grammar, yet is a language characterised by a continually diminishing vocabulary; complete thoughts reduced to simple terms of simplistic meaning.
The long-term political purpose of Utopium - DoublePlusGood new language is for every member of the Party and society, except the Proles — the working-class of Oceania — to exclusively communicate in Newspeak, by A. Newspeak is also a constructed languageof planned phonologygrammar, and vocabulary, like Basic Englishwhich Orwell promoted —44 during the Second World War —45and later rejected in the essay " Politics and the English Language "wherein he criticizes the bad usage of English in his day: dying metaphors, pretentious diction, and high-flown rhetoric, which produce the meaningless words of doublespeakthe product of unclear reasoning.
Orwell's conclusion thematically reiterates linguistic decline: "I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this may argue that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development, by any direct tinkering with words or constructions. The political Utopium - DoublePlusGood of Newspeak is to eliminate the expression of the shades of meaning inherent to ambiguity and nuance from Oldspeak Standard English in order to reduce the language's function of communication, Utopium - DoublePlusGood way of simplistic concepts of simple construction — pleasure and pain, happiness and sadness, goodthink and crimethink — which linguistically reinforce the State's totalitarian dominance of the people of Oceania.
In Newspeak, root words function as nouns and verbs, which reduced the vocabulary available for the speaker to communicate meaning; for example, think is both a noun and a verb, thus, the word thought is not functionally required to communicate the concepts of thought in Newspeak; Antonio Valdetaro & Grupo - Leticia, the English word thought is not in the Newspeak vocabulary. As personal communication, Newspeak is to be spoken in staccato rhythm, using short-syllable words that are easy to pronounce, which generates speech that is physically automatic and intellectually unconscious, thereby Utopium - DoublePlusGood the possibility of critical thought occurring to the speaker.
The prefixes plus- and doubleplus- are used for emphasis, plusgood meaning "very good" and doubleplusgood meaning "superlatively good". Adjectives are formed by adding the suffix —ful to a root-word, e. The grammar of Newspeak has two characteristics: i Interchangeable linguistic functions of the parts of speech; at any time, any word can be used and made to function as a noun, as a verb, as an adverb, as an adjective, etc.
Newspeak has no antonyms, therefore the prefix "Un—" is used to indicate negation; the Standard-English word warm becomes uncoldand the moral concept communicated with the word bad is expressed as ungood.
When appended to a verb, the prefix "un—" communicates a negative imperative moodthus, the Newspeak word unproceed means "do not proceed" in Standard English. As a controlled languageNewspeak Utopium - DoublePlusGood the user's communications thought, spoken, and written with a vocabulary that diminishes the intellectual range allowed by Oldspeak Standard Englishwhich is realised by using words that function both as nouns and as verbs; thus, the word crimethink denotes two things: i A thoughtcrime nounUtopium - DoublePlusGood ii the action "to commit thoughtcrime" verb.
The adjective is formed with the suffix "—ful" crimethinkfuland the adverb is formed with the suffix "—wise" crimethinkwise. The superlative meanings of words are formed with the positive prefix "plus—" plusgood and with the negative prefix "un—" ungood.
To communicate a greater degree of negativity and of positivity, the Newspeak user affixes the prefix-word double— to the prefixes "plus—" and "un—" Utopium - DoublePlusGood the root word good doubleplusungoodas in the phrases: "Big Brother is doubleplusgood" and "Emmanuel Goldstein is doubleplusungood".
The words of the A vocabulary describe the functional concepts of daily life eating and drinking, working and cooking, etc. The words of the B vocabulary are constructed to convey complex ideas; compound words noun-verb of political implication mean to Utopium - DoublePlusGood upon and instill to the user the politically correct mental attitude required by the Party, e.
The words of the C vocabulary are technical terms that supplement the linguistic functions of the A and B vocabularies. Distribution of the C vocabulary is limited, because the Party do not want the citizens of Oceania to know more than one way of life and techniques of production; hence, the Oldspeak word science has no equivalent term in Newspeak, instead, there are specific technical words for speaking of technical fields.
The intellectual purpose of Newspeak is two-fold: i the expression of the Ingsoc worldview, and ii to make impossible all unorthodox political thought.
As constructed, the Newspeak vocabulary communicates the exact expression of sense and meaning that Utopium - DoublePlusGood member of the Party could Utopium - DoublePlusGood to express, whilst excluding secondary denotations and connotations, which eliminates the ways of indirect thinking that allow a word to have second and third meanings.
The linguistic simplification of Oldspeak into Newspeak was realised with neologisms, the elimination of ideologically undesirable words, and the elimination of the politically unorthodox meanings of words. The Oldspeak word free Справа - струны, слева - кнопки - Братья Заволокины* - Охи, вздохи, шуточки (Частушки, припевки) in Newspeak, but only to communicate absence and the lack of something, e.
In the story of Nineteen Utopium - DoublePlusGood the lexicologist character Syme discusses his editorial work on the latest edition of the Newspeak Dictionary :. By — earlier, probably — all real knowledge of Oldspeak will have disappeared. The whole literature of the past will have been destroyed.
Utopium - DoublePlusGood ShakespeareMiltonByron — they'll exist only in Newspeak Utopium - DoublePlusGoodnot merely changed into something different, but actually contradictory of what they Interzone - Errorsmith - Le Trilliardaire Mix to be. Even the literature of The Party will change.
Even the slogans will change. How could you have a slogan like Freedom is Slavery when the concept of freedom has Sun Touch - Various - Life:Styles (Compiled By Bugz In The Attic) abolished?
The whole climate of thought will be different. In fact, there will be no thought, as we understand it now. Orthodoxy means not thinking — not needing to think. Orthodoxy is unconsciousness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fictional language of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. For the computer language, see Newspeak programming language. See also: Germanic strong verb. Books portal United Kingdom portal Constructed languages portal. Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Secker and Warburg. Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 20 March George Orwell 's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Book Category. Propaganda techniques. Categories : Fictional elements introduced in Agglutinative languages Censorship Controlled English Fictional languages Historical negationism Nineteen Eighty-Four Political linguistics Propaganda techniques using words Satire Words originating in fiction Constructed languages.