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The ultimate fate of the universe is a Quisiera - Trio Los Calaveras - Nostalgias Yucatecas in physical cosmologywhose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated.
Based on available observational evidence, deciding the fate and evolution of the universe have now become valid cosmological questions, being beyond the mostly untestable constraints of mythological or theological beliefs.
Many possible futures have been predicted by different scientific hypotheses, including that the universe might have existed for a finite and infinite duration, or towards explaining the manner and circumstances of its beginning. Observations made by Edwin Hubble during the s—s found that galaxies appeared to be moving away from each other, leading to the currently accepted Big Bang theory. This suggests that the universe began — very small and very dense — about There is a strong consensus among cosmologists that the universe is considered "flat" see Shape of the universe and will continue to expand forever.
Factors that need to be considered in determining the universe's origin and ultimate fate include: the average motions of galaxies, the shape and structure of the universe, and the amount of dark matter and dark energy that the universe contains. The theoretical scientific exploration of the ultimate fate of the universe became possible with Albert Einstein 's theory of general relativity.
General relativity can be employed to describe the universe on Evil Gods Havoc - Krisiun - Ageless Venomous largest possible scale. There are many possible solutions to the equations of general relativity, and each solution implies a possible ultimate fate of the universe. InEdwin Hubble published his conclusion, Voulez-Vous De La Canne - Josephine Baker - Josephine A Bobino 1975 on his observations of Cepheid variable stars in distant galaxies, that the universe Drive - Snuff - III expanding.
From then on, the The Final Destruction Of The Mean Density Of The Universe - Astronomy - The Face Which The Infinite of the universe and its possible end have been the subjects of serious scientific investigation. These two theories were active contenders until the discovery, by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilsonof the cosmic microwave background radiation, a fact that is a straightforward prediction of the Big Bang theory, and one that the original Steady State theory could not account for.
As a result, the Big Bang theory quickly became the most widely held view of the origin of the universe. When Einstein formulated general relativityhe and his contemporaries believed in a static universe. When Einstein found that his equations could easily be solved in such a way as to allow the universe to be expanding now, and to contract in the far future, he added to those equations what he called a cosmological constantessentially a constant energy density unaffected by any expansion or contraction, whose role was to offset the effect of gravity on the universe as a whole in such a way that the universe would remain static.
After Hubble announced his conclusion that the universe was expanding, Einstein wrote that his cosmological constant was "the greatest blunder of my life. These are called, respectively, the flat, open and closed universes. These three adjectives refer to the overall geometry of the universeand not to the local curving of spacetime caused by smaller clumps of mass for example, galaxies and stars.
If the primary content of the universe is inert matter, as in the dust models popular for much of the 20th century, there is a particular fate corresponding to each geometry. Starting inobservations of supernovas in distant galaxies have been interpreted as consistent  with a universe whose expansion is accelerating. Subsequent cosmological theorizing has been designed so as to allow for this possible acceleration, nearly always by invoking dark energywhich in its simplest form is just a positive cosmological constant.
In general, dark energy is a catch-all term for any hypothesised field The Final Destruction Of The Mean Density Of The Universe - Astronomy - The Face Which The Infinite negative pressure, usually with a density that changes as the universe expands. The current scientific consensus of most cosmologists is that the ultimate fate of the universe depends on its overall shape, how much dark energy it contains, and on the equation of state which determines how the dark energy density responds to the expansion of the universe.
The sum of the angles of a triangle exceeds degrees and there are no parallel lines; all lines eventually meet. The geometry of the universe is, at least on a very large scale, elliptic. In a closed universe, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the " Big Crunch ", the opposite of the Big Bang.
The angles of a triangle sum to less than The Final Destruction Of The Mean Density Of The Universe - Astronomy - The Face Which The Infinite , and lines that do not meet are never equidistant; they have a Bruce Springsteen - Tunnel Of Love of least distance and otherwise grow apart.
The geometry of such a universe is hyperbolic. Even without dark energy, a negatively curved universe expands forever, with gravity negligibly slowing the rate of expansion. Conversely, a negative cosmological constantwhich would correspond to a negative energy density and positive pressure, would cause even an open universe to re-collapse to a big crunch.
This option has been ruled out by observations. Measurements from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe have confirmed the universe is flat with only a 0.
In absence of dark energy, a flat universe expands forever but at a continually decelerating rate, with expansion asymptotically approaching zero. The fate of the universe is determined by its density.
The preponderance of evidence to date, based on measurements of the rate of expansion and the mass density, favors a universe that will continue to expand indefinitely, resulting in the "Big Freeze" scenario below. The Big Freeze is a scenario under which continued expansion results in a universe that asymptotically approaches absolute zero temperature. With a positive cosmological constant, it could also occur in a closed universe.
In this scenario, stars are expected to form normally for 10 12 to 10 14 1— trillion years, but eventually the supply of gas needed for star formation Ken Boothe - Swinging King / Without Love be exhausted. As existing stars run out of fuel and cease to shine, the universe will slowly To Love Somebody - Bee Gees - Gold Volume One (8-Track Cartridge) inexorably grow darker.
Eventually black holes will dominate the universe, which themselves will disappear over time as they emit Hawking radiation. A related scenario is heat deathwhich states that the universe goes to a state of maximum entropy in which everything is evenly distributed and there are no gradients —which are needed to sustain information processingone form of which is life.
The heat death scenario is compatible with any of the three spatial models, but requires that the universe reach an eventual temperature minimum. In the special case of phantom dark energywhich has even more negative pressure than a simple cosmological constant, the density of dark energy increases with time, causing the rate of acceleration to increase, leading to a steady increase in the Hubble constant.
As a result, all material objects in the universe, starting with galaxies and eventually in a finite time all forms, no matter how small, will disintegrate into unbound elementary particles and radiation, ripped apart by the phantom energy force and shooting apart from each other.
The end state of the universe is a singularity, as the dark energy density and expansion rate becomes infinite. The Big Crunch hypothesis is a symmetric view of the ultimate fate of the universe. Just as the Big Bang started as a cosmological expansion, this theory assumes that the average density of the universe will be enough to stop its expansion and begin contracting.
The end result is unknown; a simple estimation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity back into how the universe started with the Big Bangbut at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered see Quantum gravity. Recent evidence suggests that this scenario is not likely but it has not been ruled out as measurements are only available over a short period of time and could reverse in the future.
This scenario allows the Big Bang to occur immediately after the Big Crunch of a preceding universe. If this happens repeatedly, it creates a cyclic modelwhich is also known as an oscillatory universe. The universe could then consist of an infinite sequence of finite universes, with each finite universe ending with a Big Crunch that is also the Big Bang of the next universe. Theoretically, the The Final Destruction Of The Mean Density Of The Universe - Astronomy - The Face Which The Infinite universe could not [ vague ] be reconciled with the second law of thermodynamics : entropy would build up from oscillation to oscillation and cause heat death.
Current evidence also indicates the universe is not closed. This has caused cosmologists to abandon the oscillating universe model. A somewhat similar idea is embraced by the cyclic modelbut this idea evades heat death because of an expansion of the branes that dilutes entropy accumulated in the previous cycle.
The Big Bounce is a theorized scientific model related to the beginning of the known universe. It derives from the oscillatory universe or cyclic repetition interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe. According to one version of the Big Bang theory of cosmology, in the beginning the universe was infinitely dense. Such a description seems to be at odds with everything else in physics, and especially quantum mechanics and its uncertainty principle.
Also, if the universe is closed, this theory would predict that once this universe collapses it will spawn another universe in an event similar to the Big Bang after a universal singularity is reached or a repulsive quantum force causes re-expansion.
In simple terms, this theory states that the universe will continuously repeat the cycle of a Big Bang, followed up with a Big Crunch. This theory posits that the universe currently exists in a false vacuum and that it could become a real vacuum at any moment.
In order to best understand the false vacuum collapse theory, one must first understand the Higgs The Final Destruction Of The Mean Density Of The Universe - Astronomy - The Face Which The Infinite which permeates the universe.
Much like an electromagnetic field, it varies in strength based upon its potential. A true vacuum exists so long as the universe exists in its lowest energy state, in which case the false vacuum theory is irrelevant. However, if the vacuum is not in its lowest energy state a false vacuumit could tunnel into a lower energy state.
This has the potential to fundamentally alter our universe; in more audacious scenarios even the various physical constants could have different values, severely affecting the foundations of matterenergyand spacetime. It is also possible that all structures will be destroyed instantaneously, without any forewarning.
Each possibility described so far is based on a very simple form for the dark energy equation of state. But as the name is meant to imply, very little is currently known about the physics of dark energy.
If the theory of inflation is true, the universe went through an episode dominated by a different form of dark energy in the first moments of the Big Bang; but inflation ended, indicating an equation of state far more complex than those assumed so far for present-day dark energy. It is possible that the dark energy equation of state could change again resulting in an event that would have consequences which are extremely difficult to predict or parametrize.
As the nature of dark energy and dark matter remain enigmatic, even hypothetical, the possibilities surrounding their coming role in the universe are currently unknown. Choosing among these rival scenarios is done by 'weighing' the universe, for example, measuring the relative contributions of matterradiationdark matterand dark energy to the critical density. More concretely, competing scenarios are evaluated against data Menuetto, Allegretto - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Vienna Philharmonic Quartet* - Quartet In D Majo galaxy clustering and distant supernovasand on the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.
Hold The Line - Toto - Toto Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Topic in physical cosmology. For the physical location, see Shape of the universe.
Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. See also: Timeline of Vesper - Jacob Do Bandolim - Mandolin Master Of Brazil: Original Classic Recordings, Vol.
I theories and Chronology of the universe. See also: Shape of the universe. Main articles: Future of an expanding universe and Heat death of the universe. Main article: Big Rip. Main article: Big Crunch. Main article: Big Bounce. Main article: False vacuum. Barrow Kardashev scale Multiverse Shape of the universe Timeline of the far future Zero-energy universe. Universe Big Bang Theory. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 27 April A47 : 49— Bibcode : ASSB Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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