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The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century. At the start ofScotland had Continuing improvements in engineering and economics 1990 - Centz - Lo-Fi Library enabling more of the renewable resources to be utilised. Fears regarding peak oil and climate change have driven the subject high up the political agenda and are also encouraging the use of various biofuels.
Although the finances of many projects remain either speculative or dependent on market incentives, it is probable that there has been a significant, and in all likelihood long-term change, in the underpinning economics. In addition to planned increases in large-scale generating capacity and microsystems using renewable sources, Red House - Jimi Hendrix - Gone But Not Forgotten related schemes to reduce carbon emissions are being researched.
There is also an emerging political debate about the relationship between the siting, and the ownership and control of these widely distributed resources. In addition to an existing installed capacity [a] of 1. Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 January the total installed electrical generating capacity from all forms of renewable energy was less than 2 GW, about a fifth of the total electrical production.
At the end ofthere was 5, megawatts MW of installed renewables electricity capacity in Scotland, an increase of Renewable electricity generation in was a record high at 14, GWh — an increase of 7. It should be borne in mind that electricity production is only part of the overall energy use budget.
The renewable energy industry supports more than 11, jobs in Scotland, according to a study by Scottish Renewables. They estimated that the offshore wind industry might create between —2, long-term jobs by Glasgow, Fife and Edinburgh are key centres of offshore wind power development, and the emerging wave power and tidal power industries are centred around the Highlands and Islands.
Rural job creation is being supported by bioenergy systems in areas such as LochaberDevon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 and Dumfries and Galloway. Scotland also has significant quantities of fossil fuel deposits, including Maf Smith, director of the Sustainable Development Commission in Scotland said "Governments across the world are shying away from taking the necessary action. The Scottish Government must be commended for its Vowels - The Free French - Its Not Me, Its You to lead the way".
An important reason for this ambition is growing international concern about human-induced climate change. The "Hydro Board", which brought "power from the glens", was a nationalised industry at the time although it was privatised in and is now part of Scottish and Southern Shoot Shoot - Various - Headstone: The Best Of UFO plc.
Current capacity is 1. Several of Scotland's hydro-electric plants were built to power the aluminium smelting industry. These were built in several "schemes" of linked stations, each covering a catchment areawhereby the same water may generate power several times as it descends.
Numerous remote straths were flooded by these schemes, many of the largest of which involved tunnelling through mountains as well as damming rivers. Emma Wood, the author of a study of these pioneers wrote:. I heard about drowned farms and hamlets, the ruination of the salmon-fishing and how Inverness might be washed away if the dams failed inland. I was told about the huge veins of crystal they found when they were tunnelling deep Little Green Men Have Landed - Various - A Classic Slice Of Teenage Angst the mountains.
It is estimated that as much as another 1. The report concluded that even with projected new schemes at Loch Ness and Loch Sloy, pumped storage would not be able to replace wind electricity during extended windless periods. Wind power in Scotland is the country's fastest growing renewable energy technology, with MW of installed capacity as of There are many other large onshore wind farms including some, both planned and operating, which are in community ownership. The siting of turbines is sometimes an issue, Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 surveys have generally shown high levels of community acceptance for wind power in Scotland.
It is estimated that More than double this amount exists on offshore sites  where mean wind speeds are greater than on land.
Figures from Weather Energy, part of a wider European project, show electricity generated by wind in November was enough to power nearly 6 million homes — a new record for Scotland. In another milestone, wind production outstripped total electricity demand on 20 out of 30 days. Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts.
Five tubes joined together by hinged joints float semi-submerged on the surface of the ocean and move relative to each other as waves pass down the length of the machine. This motion is resisted by hydraulic cylinders which drive generators inside the machine to produce electricity. Future wave farm projects around Scotland could involve an arrangement of interlinked 1 MW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.
It was a shore-based unit and generated power when waves run up the beach, creating pressure Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 an inclined oscillating water column. In March Voith Hydro decided to close Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 Wavegen choosing to concentrate on tidal power projects. Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the then Scottish Executive on 22 February The Siadar Wave Energy Project was announced in Shortly afterwards the Government earmarked eleven sites they expected to benefit from the construction of up to 8, offshore turbines by These included Campbeltown and Hunterstonfour sites previously used for offshore oil fabrication at ArdersierNigg BayArnish and Kishorn and five east coast locations from Peterhead to Leith.
Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source. However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are Duck And Bird - Various - Peter And The Wolf the prototype stages. Today it is known that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.
Some systems capture energy from the tides in a vertical direction. The tide comes in and raises the water level in a basin. As the tide lowers the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine. Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. There are also many small scale projects throughout the world. The Pentland Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland has been described as the " Saudi Arabia of tidal power"  and may be capable of generating up to 10 GW  although a more recent estimate suggests an upper limit of 1.
The MeyGen project began exporting power to the national grid in November The Sound of Islay offers both high currents and shelter from storms. The "world's first community-owned tidal power generator" became operational in Bluemull Sound off Yell, Shetland in early Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject.
Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fuelled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets. A major benefit of biodiesel is lower carbon emissions, although the energy balance of liquid biofuels is a matter of controversy.
There is only enough used Tropiques (D.Tiffany Remix) - Willrijk - Willrijk Remixed oil in the UK to contribute 0.
Serious concerns regarding the ethics of growing biodiesel in developing countries and importing the fuel to Europe have been raised on the grounds that they may replace much needed food crops.
Due to the relatively short growing season for sugar producing cropsethanol is not commercially produced as a fuel in Scotland at present. In early a thermophilic anaerobic digestion facility was commissioned in Stornoway in the Western Isles.
The Scottish Environment Protection Agency SEPA and the Renewable Energy Association are also leading the way towards the establishment of a digestate standard to facilitate the use Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 solid outputs from digesters on land. Anaerobic digestion and mechanical biological treatment facilities have been planned at a number of other locations in Scotland, such as Westray. It has been recognised that biogas mainly methane — produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter — is potentially a valuable and prolific feedstock.
It is estimated Devon Loch - Slow Wave - Various - Radio 15 0. A report concluded that wood fuel exceeded hydroelectric and wind as the largest potential source of renewable energy. These boilers might be cheaper to run and, by using locally produced wood fuel, could try to be as carbon neutral as possible by using little energy for transportation. There is also local potential for energy crops such as short-rotation willow or poplar coppicemiscanthus energy grassagricultural wastes such as straw and manure, and forestry residues.
The Energy Savings Trust has estimated that micro-generation could provide a significantly increased proportion of the UK's electricity demand by  although only a fraction of this would come from renewable sources. Whisky distilleries may have a locally important part to play. There are also a growing number of micro hydro systems on smaller watercourses, especially in more remote rural locations.
The Inner Hebrides island Eigg is not connected to the National Gridand has an integrated renewable power supply with wind, hydro and solar and battery storage, and diesel backup which is rarely used. Source: Apricus . Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours,  solar thermal panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather. Since the introduction of feed-in tariffs there has been a growth in the volume of installed photovoltaic panels, which generate electricity.
Scott secondary school in Tarbert, Harris although larger systems have been completed since Templefrog - Kiln - Dusker. The "road energy system" uses water pipes buried beneath a layer of tarmac.
In the Britisk Ballad - Lasse Johansen - Viser Fra Sandberg Til Taube, the dark asphalt is heated by the sun which in turn heats the water in the pipes.
This water can be stored in an underground aquifer and the heat extracted in winter using a heat pump. Alternatively, the stored energy can be used for cooling buildings.
Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettlestonwhich uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses.
Although the pumps may not be powered from renewable sources, up to four times the energy used can be recovered. There is also potential for geothermal energy production from decommissioned oil and gas fields. It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required.
Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversiondeep lake water coolingand blue energyhave received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies.
Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late.
Nonetheless, a credible option may be to plant trees within the local bioregion and maintain the forest on a permanent basis, thus locking up carbon produced by burning fossil fuels. In British growing conditions this method can compensate for carbon at a rate of tonnes per square kilometre 0.
However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one. The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an Open Your Eyes - Guano Apes - Lost (T)Apes aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness.
Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.
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