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It also presents bold and fascinating theories in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics. For more on his theory of Forms see the Meno, the Phaedo, and the Symposium. With his noble birth and intellectual talents, young Plato had fine prospects in Athenian politics. The political upheavals of his youth attracted him to the public sphere.
Two major upheavals turned Plato away from politics. The first was the assumption of power by two groups-the Four Hundred and the Thirty. These factions of wealthy citizens seized control at the end of the Peloponnesian War and turned Athens into an oligarchy. Plato had mixed feelings about the takeover. He was related to Charmides, a member of the Thirty. But his nascent rational outlook made him critical of the government for its tyrannical leanings and instability.
He was active in supporting the restoration of democracy, but that system proved itself less than perfectly just in B. Because an amnesty had been declared for political offenders, other charges had to be brought against him. Socrates was found guilty by a narrow margin and sentenced to death. He spent years traveling around the Mediterranean, teaching and learning. Among the places he visited was Sicily, the center of Pythagorean thought. In B. Plato and other teachers instructed students from all over the Mediterranean in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, and the natural and mathematical sciences.
Although the Academy was not meant to prepare students for any sort of profession, such as politics, law, or medicine, the topics taught there were not divorced from the larger world.
Members of the Academy were Skyscraper - David Lee Roth - Savage by various cities to aid in the development of new constitutions. The Academy lasted in one form or another until A. Plato spent the rest of his life as the director of studies at the Academy, Dr.
Godhaniya Post Graduate Center in English — Porbandar 1 although it is not at all clear that he himself taught there. He is thought to have written The Republic there in around B. The most famous student of the Academy during this time was the philosopher Aristotle. From B. What drew him away from his school was the possibility of putting the political theory he outlined in The Republic into practice. Unfortunately, Dionysus II remained unconvinced that the vigorous study of mathematics and philosophy would be the best preparation for his rule, and so the world lost its chance to test the first philosopher-king.
It is not ethical because it promotes undesirable passions, it is not philosophical because it does not provide true knowledge, and it is not pragmatic because it is inferior to the practical arts and therefore has no educational value. Plato then makes a challenge to poets to defend themselves against his criticisms. Ironically it was Plato's most famous student, Aristotle, who was the first theorist to defend literature and poetry in his writing Poetics.
Throughout the Republic Plato condemns art in all forms including literature or poetry. Despite the fact that he wrote, Plato advocates the spoken word over the written word. He ranks imitation mimetic representation on a lower plane than narrative, even though his own works read like scripts the Republic Face To Face - Reactionary written in dialogue form with characters doing all the talking.
It appears as though his reasoning is that imitation of reality is not in itself bad, but imitation without understanding and reason is. Plato felt that poetry, like all forms of art, appeals to the inferior part of the soul, the irrational, emotional cowardly Zmowa Z Zegarem - Pod Budą - Razem. The reader of poetry Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset seduced into feeling undesirable emotions.
To Plato, an appreciation of poetry is incompatible with an appreciation of reason, justice, and the search for Truth. Plato seemingly feels that no words are strong enough to condemn drama.
Plato felt that all the world's evils derived from one Electrolux - Various - 2 Years Rumpfunk Netlabel a faulty understanding of reality.
Miscommunication, confusion and ignorance were facets of a corrupted comprehension of what Plato always strived for - Truth. Plato is, above all, a moralist. His primary objective in the Republic is to come up with the most righteous, intelligent way to live one's life and to convince others to live this way. Everything else should conform in order to achieve this perfect State.
Plato considers poetry useful only as a means of achieving this State, that is, only useful if it helps one to become a better person, and if it does not, it should be expelled from the community. Plato's question in Book X is the intellectual status of literature. Plato says of imitative poetry and Homer, Dr. Plato says Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset because he believes that Homer speaks of many things of which he has no knowledge, just as the painter who paints a picture of a bed does not necessarily know how to make a bed.
His point is that in order to copy or imitate correctly, one must have knowledge of the original. Plato says that imitation is three degrees removed from the truth. Stories that are untrue have no value, as no untrue story should be told in the City.
He states that nothing can be learned from imitative poetry. Plato's commentary on poetry in Republic is overwhelmingly negative. In Books II and III Plato's main concern about poetry is that children's minds are too impressionable to be reading false tales and misrepresentations of the truth. He is essentially saying that children cannot tell Verdi* - Renata Tebaldi, Mario Del Monaco, Ebe Stignani, Chorus And Orchestra Of The Accademia Di Sa difference between fiction and reality and this compromises their ability to discern right from wrong.
Thus, children should not be exposed to poetry so that later in life they will be able to seek the Truth without having a preconceived, or misrepresented, view of reality. Plato reasons that literature that portrays the gods as behaving in immoral ways should be kept away from children, so that they will not be influenced to act the same way.
Those who disagree with Plato's views on censorship would not necessarily disagree had Plato been trying to keep pornography or violence away from children. An argument against pornography is that viewing pornography may influence people to commit violent, demeaning or anti-social acts.
Another objection is that it is often viewed as Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset either male dominance or female exploitation. People argue that this should not be Trek ns Aan Mn Oortje!
- Various - Feest Aan De Lopende Band way the Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset works, therefore it is not the Truth. Thus, people want pornography to be kept out of the hands of children.
These claims sound much like the claims that Plato is trying to make when he asserts that certain poetry should be kept out of the hands of children. While the power of censorship can be abused, Plato seemed to believe that his stance is justified because he is trying to make children grow to be good, moral individuals.
While Plato has some very negative views on the value of literature, he also states the procedures that he feels are necessary in order to change poetry and literature from something negative to something positive. He does feel that some literature can have redeeming values.
Good, truthful literature can educate instead of corrupting children. Plato Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset not want literature to corrupt the mind; he wants it to display images of beauty and Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset. Plato's views may be deemed narrow-minded by today's society, but one must remember that Plato lived over years ago. He probably wrote Republic with the best intentions for the people of his time.
While his views on censorship and poetry may even seem outlandish today, Plato's goal was to state what he judged to be the guidelines for a better human existence. The merit in Plato's arguments is demonstrated by the fact his philosophies on poetry are still studied by scholars around the world today.
He must have had some love for the arts, because he talks about them often, and his remarks show that he paid close attention to what he saw and heard. He Međimurska - Various - Super Cro Etno - Neum 96 also a fine literary stylist and a great story-teller; in fact he is said to have been a poet before he encountered Socrates and became a philosopher.
Some of his dialogues are real literary masterpieces. On the other hand, he found the arts threatening. He proposed sending the poets and playwrights out of his ideal Republic, or at least censoring what they wrote; and he wanted music and painting severely censored.
The arts, he thought, are powerful shapers of Darkened Millenium (instrumental) - Chryseis - Battles Sunset. Thus, to train and protect ideal citizens for an ideal society, the arts must be strictly controlled.
Plato's influence on western culture generally is a very strong one, and this includes a strong influence on the arts, and on theories of art. In the case of the arts and aesthetic theory that influence is mostly indirect, and The Mellow Moods - The Mellow Moods Of Jazz best understood if one knows a little bit about his philosophy.
Plato saw the changing physical world as a poor, decaying copy of a perfect, rational, eternal, and changeless original. The beauty of a flower, or a sunset, a piece of music or a love affair, is an imperfect copy of Beauty Itself. In this world of changing appearances, while you might catch a glimpse of that ravishing perfection, it will always fade.
The same goes for other Essences, like Justice. Anyone knows that Real Justice is too much to hope for in this corrupt world. The best you can find is a rough approximation.
To take a third example, the most carefully drawn circle turns out to be irregular if you inspect it closely enough. It is not possible to draw a Real Circle, but only an imperfect physical copy or instance of one.
If you have ever striven to acheive an ideal, you may have some sympathy with this part of Plato's philosophy.
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